I developed this calculator, based on Rémy Dreyfuss-Deseigne’s (2017) article and my own research, to evaporation cast cellulose nanofibres (CNF) (also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)) in a consistent way, and in a variety of different container shapes and sizes, for use in paper conservation.
“To make a thin film (with a thickness between 0.009 and 0.01 mm) using the casting-evaporation method, 10 g of the gel was mixed with 100 mL of deionized water to obtain a homogeneous suspension. Next, 20 mL of the suspension was poured into polystyrene petri dishes with a diameter of 9 cm. After 2-3 days of drying in a controlled environment (23°C-50%RH), the water had evaporated and a homogeneous MFC film had formed.”(Dreyfuss-Deseigne 2017, 22)
Using Dreyfuss-Deseigne’s procedure cited above, I often found it hard to ensure the nanocellulose solution dispersed evenly over the dish, as surface tension and cohesive forces of the distilled water prevented this. So the volume of water added was increased. To be clear, the volume of water isn’t too important, what is important is the mass of the nanocellulose in the container(s). The volume of water added serves to disperse the nanocellulose evenly over the surface of the dish. Additionally, by using this calculator, the resulting formulation should leave you with no leftover, wasted nanocellulose.
This calculator continues to be a work in progress, as I have only begun my research into the applications of nanocellulose in paper conservation, but if you are making nanocellulose in your lab, I hope this calculator will help you. Feedback and questions are welcomed.
Dreyfuss-Deseigne, Rémy. 2017. “Nanocellulose Films in Art Conservation: A New and Promising Mending Material for Translucent Paper Objects” Journal of Paper Conservation 18, no. 1 : 18-29. doi: 10.1080/18680860.2017.1334422.
Cellulose Lab / 2 Garland Court, Room 212, Enterprise Bld / Fredericton, NB / E3B 5A3 / Canada
I would like to thank Richard Yeomans and Rosaleen Hill for their support on this project.
calculator last updated: April 13, 2021 by Robin Canham